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  • Rajendra P. Srivastava

Rajendra P. Srivastava

Professor Emeritus
Primary office:


Academic Areas


Current Activities

  1. Nehmer, R. and R. P. Srivastava. Using Belief Functions in Software Agents to Test the Strength of Application Controls: A Conceptual Framework. Revise and resubmit, Journal of Information Systems.
  2. Desai, R., V. Desai, R. P. Srivastava, and T. Libby. Evaluating the Internal Audit Function using Belief Functions: An Experimental Investigation. Submitted to Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory.
  3. Gao, L., R. P. Srivastava, T. J. Mock., and E. Emeigh. A General Framework for Assessing Fraud Risk. Submitted to Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory.
  4. Mock, T. J., R. P. Srivastava, and A. Wright. The Effects of Explicit Assessment of Fraud Triangle Factors on Fraud Risk Assessment and Audit Planning Decisions. Submitted to International Journal of Auditing.
  5. Emeigh, E., T. J. Mock, R. P. Srivastava, and S. Ragothaman. The Audit and Assurance Quality Inspection Process: A Conceptual Framework. Under progress.
  6. Srivastava, R. P., A. Masli, and M. Sherwood. Evaluation of Attributes that Constitute Board of Directors Strength: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation.  Under progress.
  7. Mock, T., R. P. Srivastava, and A. Wright. Auditor's Computational Model of Multiple Hypotheses Evaluation During Analytical Procedures. Under progress.

Selected Publications

  1. Fukukawa, H, T. J. Mock, and R. P. Srivastava. 2014. Assessing the Risk of Fraud at Olympus and Identifying an Effective Audit Plan.The Japanese Accounting Review (forthcoming).
  2. Mock, T. J., S. Rao, and R. P. Srivastava. 2013. The Development of Worldwide Assured Sustainability Reporting. Australian Accounting Review (forthcoming).
  3. Srivastava, R. P., S. Rao, and T. J. Mock. 2013. Planning and Evaluation of Assurance Services for Sustainability Reporting: An Evidential Reasoning Approach. Journal of Information SystemsVol. 27, N0. 2, Fall 2013, pp. 107-126.
  4. Srivastava, R. P., T. J. Mock, K. Pincus, and A. Wright. 2012. Causal inference in auditing: A framework. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 177-201.
  5. Srivastava, R. P. 2011. An Introduction to Evidential Reasoning for Decision Making under Uncertainty: Bayesian and Belief Functions Perspectives.  International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Vol. 12: 126–135.
  6. Desai, V., R. Roberts, and R. P. Srivastava. 2010. A Conceptual Model for External Auditor Evaluation of the Internal Audit Function Using Belief Functions. Contemporary Accounting Research, Vol. 27 No. 2 (Summer 2010) pp. 537–575.
  7. Srivastava, R. P. and A. Kogan. 2010. Assurance on XBRL Instance Document: A Conceptual Framework of Assertions. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Vol. 11 (2010) 261–273.
  8. Srivastava, R. P., T. J. Mock, and J. Turner. 2009. Bayesian and Belief Functions Formulas for Auditor Independence Risk Assessment. International Journal of Auditing, Vol. 3, pp. 163–183.
  9. Mock, T., L. Sun, R. P. Srivastava, and M. Vasarhelyi. 2009. An Evidential Reasoning Approach to Sarbanes-Oxley Mandated Internal Control Risk Assessment under Dempster-Shafer Theory. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Volume 10, Number 2, pp. 65-78 (lead article). This paper won the best paper award at the 5th International Conference on Enterprise Systems, Accounting and Logistics, July 7-8, 2008, Crete, Greece.
  10. Srivastava, R. P. and Li, C. 2008. Systems Security Risk and Systems Reliability Formulas under Dempster-Shafer Theory of Belief Functions. Journal Emerging Technologies in Accounting, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 189-219.
  11. Srivastava, R. P., T. Mock, and J. Turner. 2007. Analytical Formulas for Risk Assessment for a Class of Problems where Risk Depends on Three Interrelated Variables. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning Vol. 45, pp. 123–151.
  12. Sun, L., R. P. Srivastava, and T. Mock. 2006. An Information Systems Security Risk Assessment Model under Dempster-Shafer Theory of Belief Functions. Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 22, No. 4: 109-142.
  13. Bovee, M., A. Kogan, R. P. Srivastava, M. A. Vasarhelyi, K. M. Nelson, 2005. Financial Reporting and Auditing Agent with Net Knowledge (FRAANK) and eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL).  Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring): pp. 19-41.
  14. Srivastava, R. P. and Liping Liu. 2003. Applications of Belief Functions in Business Decisions: A Review. Information Systems Frontiers, Vol. 5, No. 4, December: 359-378.
  15. Bovee, M, R. P. Srivastava, and B. Mak. 2003. A Conceptual Framework and Belief-Function Approach to Assessing Overall Information Quality. International Journal of Intelligent Systems, Volume 18, No. 1, January: 51-74.
  16. Turner, J., T. Mock, and R. P. Srivastava. 2002. A Formal Framework of Auditor Independence Risk,” Australian Accounting Review, Issue 27, Vol. 12, No. 2, July: 31-38.
  17. Srivastava, R. P. and Hai Lu. 2002. Structural Analysis of Audit Evidence using Belief Functions," Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 131, Issues No. 1, October: 107-120. This paper won the best paper award among 38 papers in the Internet and the Digital Economy Track at the 32-Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, January 4-8, 1999.
  18. Nelson, K., Alex Kogan, R. P. Srivastava, Miklos A. Vasarhelyi, Hai Lu. 2000. Virtual Auditing Agents: The EDGAR Agent Challenge, Decision Support Systems (28) 3: 241-253.
  19. Gillett, P., and R. P. Srivastava. 2000. Attribute Sampling: A Belief-Function Approach to Statistical Audit Evidence.  Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring:145-155.
  20. Srivastava, R. P. and T. J. Mock. 2000. Evidential Reasoning for WebTrust Assurance Services," Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 16, No. 3, Winter: 11-32. This paper won the best paper award among 59 papers in the Internet and the Digital Economy Track at the 32-Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science, January 4-8, 1999.
  21. Srivastava, R. P. 1997. Decision Making Under Ambiguity: A Belief-Function Perspective. Archives of Control Sciences, Vol. 6 (XLII), No. 1-2: 5-27.
  22. Srivastava, R. P. 1996. Discussion of An Empirical Test of Bentham's Theory of the Persuasiveness of Evidence,” Auditing:  A Journal of Practice and Theory, Supplement, Vol. 15: 23-32.
  23. Srivastava, R. P. 1996. Value Judgments using Belief Functions. Research in Accounting Ethics, Vol. 2: 109-130.
  24. Fanning, K., K. Cogger, and R. P. Srivastava. 1995. Detection of Management Fraud: A Neural Network Approach. International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, Vol. 4: 113-126.
  25. Srivastava, R. P. 1995. The Belief-Function Approach to Aggregating Audit Evidence. International Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 10, No. 3, March: 329-356.
  26. Srivastava, R. P. and G. Shafer. 1994. Integrating Statistical and Non-Statistical Audit Evidence Using Belief Functions: A Case of Variable Sampling. International Journal of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 9: 519-539.
  27. Dutta, S. K., and R. P. Srivastava. 1993. Aggregation of Evidence in Auditing: A Likelihood Perspective. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, Vol. 12, Supplement: 137-160.
  28. Srivastava, R. P., and G. Shafer. 1992. Belief-Function Formulas for Audit Risk. The Accounting Review, April: 249-283 (lead article).
  29. Shafer, G. and R. P. Srivastava. 1990. The Bayesian And Belief-Function Formalisms: A General Perspective for Auditing. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, Supplement: 110-148.
  30. Srivastava, R. P. 1986. Auditing Functions for Internal Control Systems with Interdependent Documents and Channels. The Journal of Accounting Research, Fall: 422-426.
  31. Srivastava, R. P. 1985. A Note on Internal Control Systems with Control Components in Series. The Accounting Review, July: 504-507.


  • Ph.D. in Accounting, University of Oklahoma (1982)
  • Ph.D. in Physics, Oregon State University (1972)
  • M.S. in Physics, Oregon State University (1971)
  • M.S. in Physics, Gorakhpur University, India (1963)
  • B.S. in Physics and Mathematics, Gorakhpur University (1961)

Teaching Interests

  • Auditing, Managerial Accounting, and Quantitative Methods


My research interests lie in the very core of auditing and assurance services – the process of accumulating, evaluating, and aggregating evidence, and making decisions about whether the objective or assertion of interest is met. This process has become even more important because of several major cases of management fraud in financial reporting. In particular, I have been interested in understanding (1) the nature and structure of evidence involved in the audit and assurance processed not only in the traditional environment, but also in the environment of the Internet and fraudulent financial reporting, (2) the factors that build trust whether it is in the financial information, or information quality, or the Internet in general, (3) the process of aggregating evidence to determine whether the audit objectives or assurance objectives have been met, and (4) in general, the process of judgment making under uncertainty. Also, I am interested in XBRL, an XML based extensible markup language, and its impact on the audit profession. XBRL is not only providing opportunities for the audit profession but also creating challenges in terms of how to use this technology to conduct audit and provide other assurance services. My research publications have evolved through the above interests.

Research Interests

  • Belief Functions applications to Auditing and Information Systems, Information Quality, Continuous and On-line Auditing, Theoretical Study of Internal Control Systems (Design and Analysis), Statistical Sampling, and XBRL.

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